This video by Vox discusses what makes a great logo.
Speaking to graphic designer and author Michael Bierut, they look at the three main types of logos—the wordmark, the pictorial logo and abstract iconography, and introduce a fourth type called the logo system, a graphical framework that can have many permutations. Examples of the logo system include MTV’s ever changing logo and Google’s doodles.
The use of the logo system seems to be on the upswing, since it allows the brand using it to expand the conversation beyond its name. However, it might not matter what your logo is, as Bierut mentions, the mark of a good logo is not how big a splash it makes when it is released, but how it does in the long run.